Two Cape Verdeans Give Birth To The First Portuguese Republic

Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis

The Portuguese Republic was established as a result of a coup d’état that was organized by the Portuguese Republican Party on October 5th, 1910, which deposed the constitutional monarchy and a Republican Regime is installed.  The Portuguese citizens were not pleased with the royal family’s expenses, the power of the Church, the political and social instability, the system of alternating power of the two political parties and also an apparent inability to adapt to modern times.

The revolution started on the night of October 3rd, after the Republican leaders heard of the assassination of one of their own  Dr. Miguel Bombarda.  Due to this incident the Republican leaders had an emergency meeting, some among the leadership were against the meeting and wanted to postpone their plan of action because of the strong military presence in Lisbon.  The strong military presence was due to the state visit of President Hermes da Fonseca of Brazil and also because of the rumors of an imminent coup d’état.

Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis was against postponing the revolution and he insisted for it to take place. Cândido dos Reis thought it would be madness to allow the Government time to order the war ships out of the Tagus. Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis convinced his fellow Republicans by saying, “If you will not go out, I will go out alone with the sailors. I shall have the honor of getting myself shot by my comrades of the army.” Dos Reis continued with, “The Revolution will not be delayed: follow me, if you want. If there is one that fulfills its duty, this one will be me.” [“A Revolução não será adiada: sigam-me, se quiserem. Havendo um só que cumpra o seu dever, esse único serei eu.”

The thoroughness with which the Republican party was organized says much for the practical ability of its leaders. The moving spirits in the central committee were Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis, Affonso Costa, João Chagas, and Dr. Miguel Bombarda. Simões Raposo spoke for the Freemasons; the Carbonaria Portugueza, a powerful secret society, was represented by Machado dos Santos, an officer in the navy. The Republican party also had a separate finance committee, and funds were ample.

The revolution was to commence with a signal of three cannon shots, but it is unclear if the signal was given but at the appointed hour mutinies broke out in several military barracks.  A small group of armed civilians and mixed company of soldiers attempted an attack upon the Necessidades Palace, to demand the abdication of the King; but they were repelled back to the rallying point of the Republican forces, the Rotunda, at the upper end of the Avenida da Liberdade.

While Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis was on the wharf preparing to undertake command of the naval side of the revolution, he was approached by an unidentified person and was told that the revolt was crushed and all was lost. After hearing this message, Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis headed to his sister’s house, and the next morning his body was found in Arroios with a bullet through his brain.  It is believed that in desperation Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis had committed suicide. If he had delayed his suicide by a couple of hours, he would have seen his dream of a Republican Portuguese State become a reality. Today many towns, cities and avenues are named after this great patriot and founding father of the Republican Portuguese State.

This ardent patriot and leader of the revolution is listed as being born in Lisbon on January 16th, 1852 and at the age of 17 joined the Portuguese Navy as a volunteer. By September of 1909, Carlos Cândido dos Reis had been promoted to Vice-Admiral in the Portuguese Army. He had also joined the Republican Party sometime in 1908.  He was the son of António dos Reis, from Caldas da Rainha, Portugal and Matilde Espirito Santo Nencette from Fernão Nunes, Brava.  His maternal grandparents were António Elisário Nencette from Portugal and Anna da Conceição Armas de Burgo from Brava. According to his living descendants Carlos Cândido dos Reis was born in Brava and emigrated to Portugal while still a young child, where he would be baptized. Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis is related to the Burgo and Azevedo families of Cape Verde.

José Barbosa

The other Cape Verdean that took part in the Republican revolution in Portugal on October 5th, 1910 was José Barbosa. Mr. Barbosa was born on the Island of Fogo in 1869. He was a journalist by training and a strong republican, he spread the Republican ideals in all of

the newspapers that he contributed to. José Barbosa was persecuted for his Republican belief, which let to him fleeing to Spain in 1894, then France and later Brazil.

In 1908, he joined the central committee of the Republican Portuguese Party and actively participated in the preparations for the coup d’ état of October 5th, 1910.  After the Introduction of the Republic, the provisional government nominated José Barbosa for the position of Secretary of the Interior.  In 1920, during the government of Domingos Pereira, José Barbosa was appointed Minister of the Colonies.

On September 4th, 1923 José Barbosa passed away in the capital of Portugal.

Jose-Barbosa
José Barbosa

There is a strong possibility that if Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis had survived, he could have been the first president of the newly formed Republican Portuguese State. What would/could have been the impact of a Cape Verdean born president of Portugal on the colony of Cape Verde and some of the other Portuguese colonies? One can only ponder.

By: Gerson Monteiro

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Sources:

Faria, Luis António, Suzana Abreu, and Américo C. Araújo. Cabo Verde Terra de Morabeza: Uma Viagem Atraves de Sua Historia e Cultura. Valrico: LAF Enterprises, 2012.
Rudd, John. The Great Events by Famous Historians: A Comprehensive and Readable Account of the World’s History, Emphasizing the More Important Events, and Presenting These as Complete Narratives in the Master-words of the Most Eminent Historians. Vol. 21. N.p.: National Alumni, 1914. Print.
Singleton, Esther, ed. The World’s Great Events; an Indexed History of the World from Earliest times to the Present Day .. Vol. 9. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1916. Print.

Cape Verdean Veterans of American Wars

In honor of Armistice/ Veterans Day this post will honor Cape Verdean veterans of American Wars.

The Cape Verdean community here in the States should be very proud of all the Patriots it has produced and lost in every American war since the beginning; fighting for its independence, it’s struggle to remain a unified nation and for the abolition of slavery. We have fought with her against fascists and saved millions from death camps all over Europe. We were there in Korea and Vietnam and every other time Americans have been called to serve this country, including Iraq and Afghanistan.

Here is a partially list of the thousands of Cape Verdeans that have served this great nation (info provided by www.thecreolagenealogist.wordpress.com/2012/07/03/cape-verdeans-and-americas-independance-day-just-as-american-as-apple-pie :

Documented Cape Verdean military soldiers in the Revolutionary war for Independence from England were collected by Jose dos Anjos in his research of Cape Verdean military soldiers

James Pease (Jaime Pires)
Anthony Briffin (Antonio Britto)
Andrew deBarrow (Andre de Barros)
John Gomes
John Lopes
I added what may have been their original names in Cape Verde.

He also includes an extensive list of Cape Verdeans who served in the Navy and Army in the Civil War

NAVY

Name Age Complection Occupation Home
Antoine, Joseph 21 Negro Mariner Cape Verde
Antone, George 31 Mulatto None Cape Verde
Antone, Manuel 19 Black Mariner Cape Verde
Antone, Manuel 27 Mulatto None Cape Verde
Pedro Antone 30 Negro None Cape Verde
Antonio, George 32 Mulatto Sailor Cape St. Vincent, Cape Verde
Antonio, George 34 Mulatto Mariner St. Vincent, Cape Verde
Antonio, Joseph 22 Mulatto Steward Cape Verde
Antonio, Sylva 34 Negro Mariner/Carpenter Cape Verde
Antonio, Vincent 43 Negro Mariner Cape Verde
Bettis, Anton 31 Negro None Cape Verde
Bin, Philip 32 Black Sailor/Carpenter Cape Verde
Bisley, Henry M. 28 Mulatto Cook & Steward Bon Vista, Cape Verde
Cori, John 26 Mulatto Mariner Cape Verde
Correia, Joseph 25 Mulatto Mariner Cape Verde
DeBaron, Manuel A. 21 Mulatto Mariner Cape Verde
DeCruz, Antonio 33 Negro None Buena Vista, Cape Verde
Dees, Clement 27 Mulatto Mariner San Antonio, Cape Verde
Ford, Peter 27 Negro None Cape Verde
Francis, Antonio 24 Negro Sailor Cape Verde
Gomes, Ambroze 23 Mulatto None Cape Verde
Gomez, John 25 Black Mariner Porta Praya, Cape Verde
Gomez, Manuel 22 Black Seaman Bravo, Cape Verde
Goney, George 23 Negro Sailor/Farmer Port Praya, Cape Verde
Gonzales, Manuel 24 Mulatto None Cape Verde
John, Manuel 28 Mulatto Carpenter/Cooper Cape Verde
Johnson, John 21 Mulatto Steward Cape Verde
Johnson, John 21 Mulatto Steward Cape Verde
Jokim, John 36 Negro Sailor Porto Praya, Cape Verde
Jose, Antonio M. 23 Black
Cape Verde
Lear, Thomas 38 Mulatto Boat steerer Cape Verde
Lewis, Joseph 35 Mulatto None Cape Verde
Lewis, Manuel 30 Black
Bravo, Cape Verde
Lopes, Frank 45 Black Mariner Brava, Cape Verde
Lopes, Robert 27 Black Sailor Cape Verde
Lopes, Roberto 22 Negro None Cape Verde
Lopez, Antonio 21 Mulatto None Cape Verde
Lopez, Antonio 39 Black Seaman Cape Verde
Lopez, Emanuel 25 Black Mariner Cape Verde
Lupps, John 20 Mulatto Cook Cape Verde
Manuel, Antonio 28 Negro Mariner Cape Verde
Marshall, George 25 Mulatto Mariner Cape Verde
Meany, Joseph 25 Negro
Cape Verde
Murphy, James 28 Negro Mariner Cape Verde
Norshus, George 24 Mulatto None Cape Verde
Prez, Manuel A. 43 Mulatto
Cape Verde
Richardson, Charles 21 Mulatto Cook Cape Verde
Robero, Antone 32 Negro None Bravo, Cape Verde
Rosa, Julian 25 Negro None Cape Verde
Sanford, Antonio 19 Negro Sailor Cape Verde
Seeley, John D. 24 Black Cook/Mariner Cape Verde
Silva, Antonio 20
Mariner Cape Verde
Silva, Antonio 22 Colored Seaman Cape Verde
Silver, Joseph S. 20 Negro Mariner Cape Verde
Smith, John 22 Black Sailor Cape Verde
Varas, Christian F. 22 Black Mariner Cape Verde
Williams, John 27 Mulatto Sailor Cape Verde
Williams, Steven 24 Black Mariner Cape Verde

ARMY

John Antom Togo, Cape Delaware Verde 12 Oct 1864 Portland 11th
U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery abt 1838 11

John Battis Cape De Verde Is 1863 Boston, Massachusetts 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment (Colored)

George Gansery Cape De Verde Islands 1864 New York, New York 31st United States Colored Infantry

Joaquin, Jacob Perura Cape De Verde Isles 1864 Jamaica, New York 26th United States Colored Infantry

James Smith Fogo, Cape Delaware Verde 12 Oct 1864 Portland 11th U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery abt 1842 8

James Smith Toga, Cape De Verde 1864 Portland 24th United States Colored Infantry

Peter Fernandes born in 1837 who enlisted in the Civil War in 1864 and discharged on 9/29/1865 at the end of the war
Antonion Oliveira born in 1827 who was a sergeant in the Army and discharged 10/31/1865 , also after the war ended.

Also I would like to add my grandfather Frank (xucala) Benoliel Silva born in 1887 joined the Brazilian Navy and took part in the Revolt of the Lashes (Revolta da Chibata) on November 21-22, 1910 and after immigrating to USA he joined the American Navy during WWI and WWII

Arthur Gomes World War II Veteran
Courtesy of ©Ron Barboza Collection
Frank "Xucala" Benoliel Silva
Frank “Xucala” Benoliel Silva Courtesy of © Xucala Collection

Pictures:Arthur Gomes World War II Veteran [picture on the left] and Frank Benoliel Silva [picture on the right]
# #history #capeverdeanveterans #capeverdeanhistory

Cape Verdean Women Breaking the Norms

Today’s post is dedicated to every Cape Verdean Women that has lived or that will ever live. During a time when being a woman meant that you had to rights and everything you owed would belong to your husband [once you married], in Cape Verde we had some women breaking ground hundreds of years before the feminist movement.

The second donatary*** of Ribeira Grande [Southern Santiago], which today is called Cidade Velha, was BRANCA de AGUIAR the daughter of the founder of Ribeira Grande Antonio de Noli. Branca de Aguiar inherited everything that belonged to her father including his titles; she was in charge from 8 Apr 1497 – 27 Oct 1526. She was married to Jorge Correia a Portuguese nobleman, who became co-ruler.

Another woman breaking the norms was MARIA CORREIA, the Captain of Boa Vista from 1542 to 15??. Maria Correia most likely inherited the Captaincy, as man with her last name held the title of Captain of Boa Vista from the 3rd of January 1505 until 1542

The final women on the list is FILIPA DA SILVA [b. 1550 – d. 1590] the 4th countess of Portalegre, she was the donatary of São Vicente and São Nicolau from 1580 until her death in 1590.

***A Donatário, a Portuguese word roughly meaning endowed or donated, sometimes anglicized as Donatary, was a private person (often a nobleman) who the Crown bestowed a considerable piece of land (called a donataria) to administer.

Normally, the donatário was the recipient of a Captaincy, a territorial division and land grant, within Portuguese colonies.

The donatário was obligated to govern their territories under specific terms: in exchange for the grant, the donatário received tax immunities, but was also responsible for promoting and settling new residents to his territory, establishing churches (following the Catholic faith), protect them from frequent pirate attacks and promoting agriculture and commerce.cropped-cv_andreis_1778_01.jpg

Battle of Porto Praya 4.16.1781

Battle of Porto Praya

The connection between Cape Verde and the U.S goes back many years, but not many people know that the connection goes back to a time before what today are the United States of America existed.
One of the hundreds of battles that took place during the War for American independence, when 13 fledgling colonies were battling the mighty British empire for independence took place in the waters surrounding Cape Verde Islands.

On April 16th, 1781 a British Naval squadron under the command of Commodore George Johnstone stopped over in Porto Praya (now Praia), Cape Verde on the way to the Cape of Good hope to attack and take it away from under Dutch control came under attack by a French Naval squadron under command of the French Admiral Bailli de Suffren that was headed towards the Cape of Good Hope to assist the Dutch in the defense of the colony against the British.

The French surprised the British and they were able to come out victorious. The British had 183 casualties of which, 36 were killed and 147 wounded.

This naval encounter became known as the Battle of Porto Praya.

A Cape Verdean Slave Owner and Governor of Portuguese Guinea

Honório Pereira Barreto (1813–1859) was a governor of the Portuguese colony of Guinea (or ‘province’ as it was referred to during the time of his administration). Born in Portuguese Guinea of a Guinean mother and Cape Verdean father, he maintained Portuguese control of the area and even extended its influence. Prior to the independence of Guinea-Bissau, Barreto was sighted by the Portuguese as the most famous governor and an example of what the local population might achieve. At the age of twenty-four Barreto was appointed Governor of Bissau and Cacheu. However, Barreto also ran a family business with his mother from the settlement of Cacheu, where the principal products of their mercantile dealings were slaves.Image